I recently installed a SQL 2008 R2 Cluster and the installed failed with these messages:

The cluster resource ‘SQL Server’ could not be brought online.  Error: The resource failed to come online due to the failure of one or more provider resources. (Exception from HRESULT: 0x80071736)

This happened at the very end of the installation, and the event logs indicated that it was related to the computer account that it tried to create.

Cluster network name resource ‘SQL Network Name (SERVER)’ failed to create its associated computer object in domain ‘Domain’ for the following reason: Unable to create computer account.

The text for the associated error code is: Access is denied.

If you were to attempt a repair of SQL Server, it would fail and state that a repair is not possible, because SQL did not install successfully to begin with.

Therefore, uninstalling the SQL cluster and starting over clean is the best path forward.

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Before starting the installation again, remember to delete the data directory that the previous installation created (where master.mdf exists) otherwise install will fail again because it will not overwrite any existing database files.

Check the Active Directory Users and Computers container and look for the computer account to see if it was created.
If it was not created, you can pre-stage the computer account per this article: (See the section “To prestage a cluster name account”) http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc731002(WS.10).aspx#BKMK_requirements
If it was created, then disable the computer account of the SQL cluster virtual instance name so that during the install it will not think it is in use.